Bread and Thread: Therese de Dillmont’s Encyclopedia of Needlework

hello welcome to bead and thread a podcast about food and domestic history i’m liz

And I’m hazel we’re two friends who studied archaeology together and love history and also making stuff. So what you been up to this week

recently so I bought a patent from revelry. Cannot remember the name of the designer, but I will tweet a link to it. It’s called embrace octopus. This proper all tiny octopus on a jumper and my tentacles go around the body and round their arms and staff. I know that pattern I’ve been like lusting after for six years. I am so excited to make this. I’m also very excited at that guy is also an eye forgotten her name, but the one of the teachers apartments archaeology and she made you as the one who did the and GIS stuff at one I came name but and yet I coded Prof with the octopus jumper. It was great. And yet that is fighting a besotted I have an, said of the way through the torso. It’s come under the name of the thing is not good words today. The thing where you like, attach the sleeves to the body while you’re knitting the yoke.

Okay, so I’m getting there. Tentacles are developing again into the Tesco’s. Yeah, it’s having done colour work for a while quite something akin to it. I need to. I think picture in the patreon discord oh and dredged what been working on and I made a passionfruit and dark chocolate hearts, that sounds amazing is the fanciest desert I have ever made so serious. Definitely this one is smooth and sensual habits like holding up myself and I was like, make a very fancy thing and I have baked in a while so it was like a the out of the magazine, which by the way and get 33 library and am it’s got the care chocolate pastry base with cocoa powder in then a passionfruit curd and then and chocolate – and for oats like like a mouth slows, and good is pretty rich by making us worked out and it was supposed to be, but it was why. And then, after being the fridge for a while normal is a dark, dark ganache. Okay, there’s more cocoa in it against thicker and denser. Just Wanna put in more cream or use less cocoa. We chocolate if you want thinner AC go you how dialled many ganache as the white chocolate ganache and everything is that as a hard harder. Technically, no cocoa in white chocolate right since it is not chocolate a lot harder to work with white chocolate ganache was like blueberries is very good. Good thinking, passionfruit clay quite fancy and exotic me was really nice and by that kind of tiny flavour with the sweetness of the chocolate that was really good.

So thinking you could probably make and it would have the same light make as big Russia might make others next year.

Yes, so that that is perhaps amazing, so this is one of our book episodes. I believe it is indeed feels for this one is not a book I have again inspired and spread as much as bread a lot of stress involved in so about and to raise the Dell months Encyclopaedia of needlework, published in 1886 and encyclopaedia. Yeah, I really honestly like there is very a lot in this book and and it is it deserves its aim, so I actually first saw this book in a radio second-hand bookshop and and it looks like I was interested in newer times had a look, but I just kind of seems like you know, really old and we tie and now that bit more interested in like historical methods of doing things down a washable and don’t worry because it is quite was very popular in its day am and there’s a lot of them around so I don’t think it would be too difficult to get hands on one. If you wanted one and also as I discovered when I was looking looking up at this book, there is a copy on project bag available for free, so if you’re at all interested in anything that I suck. Then you can just go and find and read yourself. And there’s all of all of the images are reproduced as well is really good. I think it’s one of the original edition because, as we will find out and there were many, many additions going right up into the mid 20th century recent yet far outlived it of and because it was just so comprehensive and it really hit at the right moment as well. When this was published in the late 19th century and there was a real a real fashion for decorative needlework and I guess kind of similar to how those revival of craft anything, stay and but this time. There was just so much more availability of like different kinds of threads. Different colours like materials and had before and plus a lot of people had more leisure time, so it was an needlework as a hobby was really popular and at the time so talking makes the backend of the arts and crafts movement right yeah yeah kind of 18 70s 80s started 1860s and then went on for a little bit and yeah so that plus the infamous Victorian fashion for decorating literally everything in your house somehow meant that this this is a really popular book and an although there were a lot of other kind competitors. The time it out for various reasons, so Terry is the Dell months and was an Austrian writer. She was born in the town of been obliged in 1846, which is just south of the and and she was also of a professor of architecture at the military academy there and her mother had the fantastic name of Francisco spending time that it is not relevant anything is safe because excellent, so she educated as a governess and a teacher and BN are and as part of education she so needlework and got really interested in it, and she may have attended the needlework school that was founded by Empress. Eraser and in committing century and I’m certainly she was a close friend of the director of the school and for most of her life. So she ran an embroidery shop in Vienna while with her sister and selling just embroidery materials, signed patterns and but it was after she started a partnership with the company DMC that her career really took our and this interesting story because she was like a real career woman the time and so she had moved to Switzerland for an and she she had her own embroidery school that an but she also started working for the company, DMC, and which stands for Dolcis make a company right, but better known as DMC, which is still in business today and is very, very well-known as probably the most famous maker of cotton embroidery threads I think my embroidery starter set was DMC. Yeah, that would describe it some bare best still going strong, and then the moment I think because of the resurgence of craft into and everyone stuck inside with nothing else to do, and they still do make make their patterns and things down just Dell and their materials. They also yeah right from the start were so driving sales by doing patterns and designs and techniques, and so are DMC published her book the encyclopaedia, needlework, and they were based in Alsace, which interestingly is in Germany this time. And because it did become part France until after what yeah, that’s, that’s a whole geopolitical that the French German company. I guess I’m not I’m not like that. Well read on Alsatian history and the dog. I know nothing. I know less about the Alsatian textile industry.was.though yes, okay. Several known and well so she contract with DMC to write for them and she published an over hundreds or early were attributed to the heart of anything at the same name as much about later and most famous is the insight with BDO needlework published in six and and Wigan have little victory of it and am but I just do one talk about and how this partnership ended quite interesting, so the book was really, really popular. It’s had many reprints. It was translated into 17 languages and unclear. This next because there were the chain of embroidery like need workshops opened under her name in Vienna, Paris, Berlin and London and some something some biographies. I looked at and kind of say that they were high shops and then others may show found says they were opened by DMC under her name, but she does seem to be quite involved in the running of the way because she was happening between them since franchise yeah, and at this point had name was basically a brand and in fact when she got married in 1880. Nine DMC really did not approve were quite out, she changed the name and and the name was the brand so they yeah they were not happy about that and photo. She died only a few months later and her niece to had the same name over the job, but in the nieces contract it was. There was a clause that said she wasn’t allowed to get married at intonation because the name was brand idols and all the OD embroidery idle’s amazing dispersal, amazing yellow and working great but just illustrates the extent of which she was well-known at the time. I mean, this was all over the place and that’s why you can. If it’s quite easy to pick it up into graduates and so the self and I think the addition that some Guttenberg’s either the additional original 1991 and because of the prices, so the tradition cost three shillings, where it is not massively expensive. I mean, probably the people who can be most interested in fancy work are likely middle/classes and who the middle classes who have like a middle-class lady has a lot more leisure time and then someone would probably employ a middle-class lender to do it by Biba or have someone make them for them. Although it was also a popular hobby among the and so, like I buy would say that they repeat it the hobby purposes as well. Whereas a middle-class lady make you looking to do it at two look fancier but didn’t have the money to pay for the real professionals and having said that an it wasn’t, like, totally out of reach something working-class women could have afforded Madine on a whim and but given the average 80 feet. The average wage and at that time for a western man and was about 6 pounds a year and this is in regular employment and which, according to my calculation, how 16 shillings a week, maybe the pending auto review is’s wife on as a birthday present something so something that might be considered a worthwhile investment and for a weapon, thus woman because it does contain information on plain selling as well, amending and yet also something you do to close that little bit more fancy when you got time for another reason that an she became so well-known because, like a lot of people, and in fact it was reprinted after it was still reprinted and added to and the 20th century there were even iron on transfers that were added to the book, which is while holds yeah I don’t. I don’t know, like when they first became a thing. And but the book went on that they were a guess so and so was so popular. Up until then, I imagine they would take out some of the more Victorian-ish things and and on the title page is an illustration of an angel with the motto and you know Victorian memos and the matter is, like, I don’t know so this is right, but it’s 10 10 we feel a magnum Exeter opus, which apparently means from one fine thread work of art is born like that is the same kind of vein as the mighty oaks from little acorns grow so it’s an extremely comprehensive book and kind of set apart and some of its competitors. At the time because they would be especially the ones publishing in English would be focusing more on English styles of embroidery, whereas the yeah and this included a lot of continental styles and also an segments on Chinese embroidery Campbell work from India and Turkish embroidery. So, like a lot of different styles and bring from all over the world just looking at the chapters I can median lace Venetian. This Brussels lace timbre work managed it yet’s incredibly thorough, there’s a lot a lot of things. I don’t know whether or not these were no “authentic and like embroidery instructions, but they certainly represent an the way that certain styles became popular in different cultures and you know people like the idea of this thing and then and yea change that little bit in with what they were doing represent an interest in, and different kinds of techniques to raise an appropriation that what is called Chinese embroidery in a Victorian needlework manual doesn’t represent like all of Chinese embroidery, but rapidly not. Definitely represents a an interest in, and in people who are doing this embroidery in the West at the time in that kind of style and so yeah, let’s take a it starts with the instructions for plain selling and she has some comments to make on the place of hand sewing in the 8% which are quite interesting, so the sewing machine is is going good at this time but not everybody has one and but it is starting to become, but is starting to become not uncommon to have one in the home and so she says many on opening the encyclopaedia, needlework body disposed to exclaim, as they read the heading of this perception. What is the use of describing all the well-known stitches when machines have so nearly superseded the slower process and sewing to this our reply is that all kinds of needlework. Plain sewing needs to be most thoroughly learned as being the foundation of all those who are able to employ others to work for them should at least know how to distinguish good work from bad and those who are in less fortunate circumstances have to be taught how to work themselves. She’s got a point. Has indeed basics and New Haven today because of the technologies we still use hand sewing for the things like finishing techniques, things that you just can’t get machine to do so, yeah, I batteries so she has a bunch of sections at Sears and Hemmings seems all the basics of an but as this book is more aimed at hobby market, there is a lot on various kinds of fancy work and is not just an sewing, needlework at this time also encompass crochet and knitting, so there’s a section crochet work and there’s a section on knitting tapestry and then embroidery gold embroidery white embroidery and openwork and cut work, netting, macramé testing, Irish lace, which is kind of needle lace and and also Irish crochet, which is really amazing. Some, it’s like a silo crochet with very refined read where you there, like 3D motifs like flowers and even games nurse of net backgrounds and and… Incredible as a hasn’t heard of several of the things you listed down have to look at the Guttenberg I know. I mean I I don’t know them all very lower netting bezel. Interestingly, there’s a lot of instructions on how to make different kinds of lace and both in session, a edging race and and collars and things than I think that’s possibly because a lot of these kind of stuff that these races are intended for, like millions and am underwear night wearing stuff and was still often being made at home time and the lace is a way that you can make it fancy as personalisation as well as know you don’t want to to know that everyone else has the same stuff as you. Especially making it yourself. Definitely yeah, and if you got the time and is your hobby and your other option is having boring, plain underwear, then it’s a very no-brainer and someone with so substantial breast i.e. have a lot of feelings about nice-looking underwear that is entirely fair and so I really like this. This DIY underwear crediting like it’s quite tempting races now and attached, which is very Victorian, and she also includes instructions in the back for washing lace at washing, stiffening, ironing and thinning, and she makes an interesting distinction between ordinary lace and real lace by which I think she means, machine lace versus handmade lace handmade is the real race.

Yeah I think so. OG being yeah the real deal.

And so, yeah, it is comes in a time when as well hand work is starting to be something that you do for pleasure rather omit machinemade stuff is more available and cheaper. So to save time. It is just a lot easier and so doing, like fancy stuff by hand is now hobby pastime and so yeah impending out the lace and she says that if it’s machinemade base, you can just iron it benefits like real lace, then you got to pin out, I assume because it’s more delicate seals to me that the machinemade would be more delicate, but that might just be me being used to 21st-century manufacturing yet, so this is the real Metallica them and eBay. I would think that because the Beijing and have the kind of delicacy of machine work to work with the refined read and I know if you know about an 1880s machine lace then please do let me know okay practice at about lace. Yeah, I think appreciation lace recently. Look at Ian Rabbi and not any more and I really have come around to it does have its place. I think the premise because when when you think about Lacey think about my doilies weird like lampshades with lace around for no good reason, that does get really dusty yeah and relics about Victorian decorate everything mania and but there are amps some photographs in this book of the crochet lace patterns, and they are absolutely beautiful. In particular, there is an incredible lace collar and it looks kind of like those really fancy at 17th-century ones, and that are often in paintings like this really fancy white lace against the black puritanical type clothing and its the it’s is just so beautiful and have to put up some pictures and yet it does kind of making theatre different light. So there’s a really interesting methods and for changing the patterns like transferring them, extending more and or sizing them up or down and say that there’s one here to transpose and repeat patterns by means of looking glasses. So yeah. And so this is when your trainer adapter pattern to the proportions of your table runner or your rug or your whatever you’re making and you used to unframed mirrors and put them as angles to each other and so that you reflect the pattern and and then you can even use this to make the pattern into a corner and see what you need to do or to serve reflect a repeated pattern and see how it joins and its really describe this without like looking at the illustrations so am yet and you’re still investing to give it a go and and have a look in the practical directions chapter of the book and the illustrations and that yeah it is really cool and so she often also includes an crochet lace and there’s knitting are so in the cold work is another nice little quote to gold workers in with gold thread yet and so cold. Work is an bunch of different materials, say use of gold thread and often it’s raised so it can collect some work where you like pad out the base and then stitch over it so I can build 3D and you could various of gold-ish leather that you can use in various different materials and and it was quite popular in 18th-century as well and as she mentioned so she says, after the present time, dating from the end of the 18th century gold embroidery has been almost exclusively confined to those who made a profession. Amateurs have seldom attempted what it was commonly suppose required an apprenticeship nine years to attain any proficiency in while seems like a long time to just get good at something.

Yeah, becoming experts is a good and any proficiency in Baltimore embroidered all nine years. Your baby gear.

Yeah, so this is also representative of that shift from professionals to hobby amateur. A lot of these professions is very specific professions are dying out at this stage, and because they can’t really compete in the their economy, where mass manufactured goods are available late. No one can afford their stuff anymore except the superrich people, then there’s not a lot of outrage so and people who would specialise in these kinds of embroideries so I can 18th-century they would have embroidery workshops and some of them would specialise in a certain thing and they would just do that professionally and so if you could afford, you wouldn’t like you in bother China do-it-yourself because it’s like a professional thing and but now no one can really mean they were making a lot of money in first place and but you people have any afford to sustain this profession. Any and so it kind of goes into the amateur like copy kind of world. And as with a lot of other things. And so she says, but now when it is the fashion to decorate every kind of fancy article whether leather plush velvet with monograms and ingenious devices or descriptions. The art of gold embroidery has revived and is being taken up in practice, with success, even by those to whom needlework is nothing more than an agreeable recreation. We trust that the following directions and illustrations will enable our readers to dispenser the ideas training which even now expert in the art. Consider necessary so that humble brag. Yeah, a lot of things of that era. Just read like that, just because of how people wrote this yeah talking, talking around logo even by those of needlework is nothing more than an agreeable recreation embroidered the phrase an agreeable recreation anything that you call an agreeable recreation becomes recreation of semi-fine needlework and agreeable recreation by like even if you’re not professional with my book, you can do this yeah thing. I just prefer interpreting. You can do it, and the instructions do seem quite the diagrams are pretty good, like the pretty pretty well laid out and the instructions are little bit of that in the usual manner can and where I think they’re assuming at least some sewing competence and mother will teach you yeah say like pretty much every every woman time knew how to so and more or less so latest is assuming like a familiarity with them with a lot of the pictures, but then she does include a lot of like that. She started the beginning. And so it kind of is aimed at the beginner as well. This is nice having that saucepans against what is why it was popular for so long as the state. This is for everyone. Yeah, and it’s quite, it’s the tone of it is repeatedly weight is unsurprising, teach over and it is very teacher Labour not condescending. It’s kind of, you can do the thing just listen carefully and so like that. Yeah, one from an instructional text was written by someone who actually was really interested in every kind of needlework and knew what she was about to expect from someone whose profession was teaching needlework, but given that this was published by an company DMC, it does put a lot of the products like all of the recommended suppliers DMC thread so be quite tricky. Your trying to follow the Russians because obviously a lot of these materials make anymore so you could hang figure out what the modern is just a different DMC product find something that is similar and thickness or whether you need an MA might differ in material like what it’s made of 30 also includes an embroidery pattern, something designs and ideas do. It’s just some really good book and is looking throughout found things I would make techniques that was like riding about. So, like it still is race of the test of time because if you are somebody who just wanted to learn how to so like mending stuff your modern clothes. This would tell you how to do it like it shows you how to do dining and mending house on button switches the same thing that you do today. And yeah, it’s this handy and is not to like 19th-century, you know it’s not indecipherable, so journey into monsters like the video of needlework, which you can find unprotected to back our link in the footer and in the discord was interested in that and I’m pleased if you if you get into this as much as we have. And you try something out that those in the spectra and so tank is listing and is said, we have a patriotically one helpers host the show. All helpers get these sorts of books and thread. You can also email at Reading if you have any ideas things that we should all knew just when I send us a picture of your amazing crochet lace or if you want email, you can tweet us and also just bread and thread and will talk to. Next you are you you

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